Periodontal disease is a disease of the supporting tissues of the teeth that may affect the gums, periodontal ligament membrane, and bone around the tooth socket. It has been linked with infections, which some researchers believe could lead to or have an impact on a number of conditions, including problems in pregnancy. Periodontal disease is common in women of reproductive age, and gum conditions tend to worsen during pregnancy due to hormonal changes. The treatment involves bringing plaque on the teeth down to minimal levels, to reduce and resolve inflammation of the gums. It could involve counselling on oral hygiene measures, removing the plaque and calculus by using hand instruments (e.g. scale and polish) or ultrasound equipment (e.g. mechanical debridement), sometimes alongside the use of antibiotics or antiseptic mouthwashes or gels. If the nonsurgical treatment is not successful, surgery is sometimes required. This review assessed studies where pregnant women with gum disease were treated using a combination of techniques, with or without antibiotics. Continue reading
Scaling and polishing of the teeth may help to reduce deposits such as plaque (bacteria) and hardened plaque (calculus or tartar). It may also reduce bleeding and inflammation of the gums. Many dentists and hygienists provide scaling and polishing for most patients at regular intervals, even if they are at low risk of developing gum disease. For this review, scaling and polishing was defined as the scaling and polishing of the crown and root surfaces to remove deposits of plaque and calculus. Calculus is so hard that it cannot be removed by toothbrushing alone, and it is generally removed by the scale and polish treatment. Removal of hardened deposits is done with specially designed dental instruments or ultrasonic scalers, and polishing is done mechanically with special pastes.
Is there evidence that this practice is effective? This review considers the data from randomized controlled trials. Continue reading