Fear of the dentist may be expressed as unco-operative behaviour in children requiring dental treatment. Behaviour management problems can result in a child’s tooth decay going untreated. While behavioural techniques play an important role in managing children, some children still find it difficult to co-operate with dental treatment and may require sedation. This review examined the effects of drugs to sedate a child whilst keeping them conscious. Continue reading
Although children and adolescents have healthier teeth today than in the past, tooth decay is still a problem among some individuals and populations, and it affects a large number of people around the world. Most decay in children and adolescents is concentrated on the biting surfaces of permanent back teeth. Preventive treatment options for tooth decay include tooth brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, use of fluoride supplements (e.g. fluoride tablets) and application of dental sealants and topical fluorides at dental clinics. Dental sealants are applied to form a physical barrier that prevents growth of bacteria and accumulation of food particles in the grooves of back teeth. Several sealant materials are available: The main types in use are resin-based sealants and glass ionomer cements. Fluoride varnishes are sticky pastes that are professionally applied to the teeth two to four times a year. Continue reading
Tooth decay in the milk (baby teeth) of children tends to progress rapidly, often reaching the dental nerve (or pulp, the nerves in the centre of the tooth). Dentists normally have to do one of three things:
1. pulp capping – placing a medicament over the exposed tooth pulp
2. pulpotomy – removal of some of the tooth pulp
3. pulpectomy – removal of all of the tooth pulp.
With direct pulp capping and pulpotomy, some of the nerve in the tooth is left and therefore the filling material has to be put into contact with the living pulp tissue. The most common materials used in direct pulp capping are calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate, formocresol or an adhesive which allows a filling material to adhere to the tooth. After a pulpectomy, no nerve is left inside the treated tooth, but a filling material is put into the space created by the removal of the pulp and this must not stop the development of the permanent, adult tooth. After a pulpotomy, one of four materials is used to fill the space: ferric sulphate, formocresol, calcium hydroxide or mineral trioxide aggregate. This research investigates the success of these dental nerve treatments in milk teeth. Continue reading