Ventilator‐associated pneumonia (VAP) is a lung infection. It develops in patients who are on artificial breathing machines (ventilators) in hospitals for more than 48 hours. Often, these patients are very ill – they may have had a heart attack or stroke, a serious accident, or major surgery. They may be unable to breathe on their own because they are unconscious or sedated while they receive treatment. Ventilators supply patients with oxygen through a tube placed in the mouth or nose, or through a hole in the front of the neck. If germs enter through the tube and get into the patient’s lungs, this can lead to VAP. VAP is a potentially very serious complication in patients who are already very ill. It can cause worsening health and increases patients’ risk of dying.
Keeping a patient’s mouth clean and free of disease could help to prevent VAP. Oral hygiene care includes mouthwash, antiseptics, using swabs to clean the mouth, toothbrushing and tools like suction devices, which suck away fluid from the mouth. These measures can be used on their own or combined.
The removal of dental plaque by daily toothbrushing plays a major role in preventing tooth decay and gum disease, the two main causes of tooth loss. Toothbrushing is a skill that can be difficult for people with intellectual disabilities; they may require help and people who care for them may need training in how to help them. For this research, we used the World Health Organization’s definition of intellectual disability which is: “a significantly reduced ability to understand new or complex information and to learn and apply new skills. This results in a reduced ability to cope independently, and begins before adulthood, with a lasting effect on development.” Continue reading →
Poor oral hygiene habits are known to be associated with high rates of dental decay and gum disease. The dental team routinely assesses oral hygiene methods, frequency and effectiveness or otherwise of oral hygiene routines carried out by their patients. Oral hygiene routines can include toothbrushing, reducing sugar intake, interdental cleaning with floss or interdental brushes, and using a fluoride mouthwash or dentifrice. One-to-one oral hygiene advice is regularly provided by members of the dental team with the aim of motivating individuals and improving their oral health. The most effective method of delivering one-to-one advice in the dental setting is unclear. This review’s aim is to determine if providing patients with one-to-one oral hygiene advice in the dental setting is effective, and if so what is the best way to deliver this advice. Continue reading →
Pneumonia is common among elderly people living in nursing homes. Nursing home‐acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is a bacterial infection of the lung that occurs in residents of long‐term care facilities and nursing homes. Poor oral hygiene is considered to contribute to the likelihood of contracting an infection. Professional mouth care is a combination of brushing teeth and mucosa, cleaning dentures, using mouthrinse, and check‐up visits to a dentist, while usual mouth care is generally less intensive, and is self‐administered, or provided by nursing home staff without special training in oral hygiene. Continue reading →
Critically ill people, who may be unconscious or sedated while they are treated in ICUs, often need to have machines to help them breathe (ventilators). The use of these machines for more than 48 hours may result in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care, using a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with breathing-in of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. Continue reading →