There has been an increasing demand for whiter teeth. Home-based whitening products with a bleaching action have become popular and are prescribed to people by the dentist or purchased over-the-counter. A variety of whitening products are available which include hydrogen peroxide, carbamide peroxide, sodium percarbonate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, and calcium peroxide. These agents are supplied in different concentrations and are used with different methods of application (gel in tray, strips, paint-on gel, chewing gum, and mouthwash), which have varying application times and duration of treatment. Continue reading
Fear of the dentist may be expressed as unco-operative behaviour in children requiring dental treatment. Behaviour management problems can result in a child’s tooth decay going untreated. While behavioural techniques play an important role in managing children, some children still find it difficult to co-operate with dental treatment and may require sedation. This review examined the effects of drugs to sedate a child whilst keeping them conscious. Continue reading
Nursing home residents are often unable to carry out proper oral care, which is an important factor in maintaining the health of the mouth, teeth, and gums. Nursing home staff may not be prepared to provide adequate care. Therefore, oral health care education for residents and/or nursing staff may be one strategy to improve this situation. Continue reading
Dental decay is a cavity formation in teeth resulting from the destruction of dental tissue caused by bacteria under certain conditions, including poor oral hygiene and excessive sugar intake. Symptoms may include pain and difficulty with eating, and complications may include tooth loss, infection or inflammation of the gum. Rotating drills are traditionally used to remove decay. However, this mechanical tool may have unexpected side effects, such as the removal of too much or too little decay, in addition to discomfort due to pain, noise and vibration. Laser therapy is a potential alternative to a mechanical drill. Continue reading
Restorative dental treatments are used to repair damage to teeth caused by tooth decay or accidents. Creating a physical barrier around a treatment site to reduce contamination of the site with saliva is a common practice. Reducing the amount of saliva in the area may enable the materials used for repair to bond together more effectively, improving the performance and reliability of the restoration. It may also reduce exposure to bacteria in the mouth.
Two methods of creating a barrier are commonly used; either a rubber dam around the tooth or cotton rolls together with suction to remove excess saliva. The rubber dam method involves using a sheet of latex in a frame. A small hole is made in the sheet and it is placed over the tooth to be treated creating a barrier around it. Using a rubber dam can isolate the tooth from the rest of the person’s mouth, which allows the tooth to be repaired dry and with relatively less exposure to bacteria in the mouth. A common alternative method of isolation of the tooth is the use of cotton rolls combined with the removal of excess saliva by suction. The evidence on the effects of rubber dam usage versus cotton roll usage is conflicting. Continue reading
Wisdom teeth, or third molars, generally erupt between the ages of 17 and 26 years. These are the last teeth to erupt, and they normally erupt into a position closely behind the last standing teeth (second molars). Space for these teeth to erupt can be limited. Wisdom teeth often fail to erupt or erupt only partially, which is often due to impaction of the wisdom teeth against the second molars (teeth directly in front of the wisdom teeth). In most cases, this occurs when second molars are blocking the path of eruption of third molar teeth and act as a physical barrier, preventing complete eruption. An impacted wisdom tooth is called asymptomatic and disease-free in the absence of signs and symptoms of disease affecting the wisdom tooth or nearby structures.
Impacted wisdom teeth can cause swelling and ulceration of the gums around the wisdom teeth, damage to the roots of second molars, decay in second molars, gum and bone disease around second molars and development of cysts or tumours. General agreement exists that removal of wisdom teeth is appropriate if signs or symptoms of disease related to the wisdom teeth are present. Less agreement exists about the appropriate management of asymptomatic disease-free impacted wisdom teeth. Continue reading
Dental pain is common after dental procedures and can lead to increased fear of dental treatment, avoidance of dental treatment and other associated problems. Reduction of pain is important, particularly in children and adolescents. One way of managing this might be to give painkillers before treatment so that the painkillers can start to work right away. This updated review looked at evidence for using painkillers in children, aged up to 17 years, undergoing treatment without sedation or general anaesthetic, but who may have had a local anaesthetic. The treatments included extracting teeth, restoring teeth and fitting braces. Continue reading